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Principles of Lightning and Surge Protection

Lightning strokes, which add up to 200 kA or 300 kV, cause hazards towards the equipment or location, so lightning protection is essential for operation.

Let's commence with the initial note as to what is lightning and why lightning protection can be so important. The essential phenomenon behind lightning is always that charges accumulated from your cloud as well as the earth are equal and opposite. This forms a non-uniform potential gradient surface in the air. When the gradient is larger than the potential from the surface, the breakdown occurs as well as a "streamer" flows in the cloud for the earth.

A direct stroke happens when the lightning hits the power systems directly that the immense potential will result in destruction from the equipment or the facility. In comparison, an indirect stroke is carried out in the lightning discharges within the proximity from the power line or from electrostatic discharge for the conductor because of the charged clouds.

The main power system elements requiring lightning protection are power feeds, home alarm systems, telephone lines, data and control systems and RF cables.

Ways of Lightning Protection. The rolling sphere way is employed for identifying the complete keeping of the lightning and surge protection devices nearby the equipment under operation.

Protection of the power line against direct strokes is through a ground wire or protector tube. The first kind produces electrostatic screening, that's afflicted with the capacitances with the cloud to line along with the line to ground. Rogues forms an arc between your electrodes, causing gas deionisation.

Rooftop/Frame Protection. It's interesting to make note of that this building and rooftop frame or cladding is preferably metal than insulation type.

Installing of a finial near the top of the electricity tower must have the absolute minimum distance of merely one.5 m over the highest antenna or lights. This type of rooftop or building frame is made from reinforced steel for cover purpose.

Wooden towers without downconductors may cause a fireplace hazard, as they route the incoming charges to ground. In principal, for non-metallic roofs, proper downconductors must be installed in the appropriate location and height.

Device Protection. Antenna lightning protection emerges through spark gap, the gas discharge tube and quad-wavelength shorted stub. The very first method uses ball points in order that if your strike occurs, high potential forms together and also the ground. The next method causes gas deionisation through arc formation between the electrodes. The very last method utilizes a coax transmission line throughout the transmission line to ensure that system bandwidth is narrow.

A lightning arrester is often a device offering lightning protection by regulating spark gaps. The product classification may range from rod gap, horn gap and valve type to metal oxide lightning arresters.

Earthing and Bonding Solutions. Now let's find how earthing and bonding solutions for lightning protection should be afforded. The design of earth rods, terminals or clamps should be in a way to route the incoming transients to earth to minimise step and touch potentials. The geometric measurements chosen should adhere to the IEEE and NFPA standards. Any earthing system really should have proper bonding, as ground potential rise is not compensated. Again, the volume of interconnects and spacing ought to be designed per the lightning standards.

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